Archaeology pioneer and treasure hunter E. Lee Spence
holds two portholes from the SS Ozama
The wreck of a 19th century steamer that smuggled guns, carried hundreds of thousands of dollars and possibly gold, has been discovered off the coast of South Carolina, US explorers have announced today.
Found off Cape Romain in about 40 feet of water, the ship has been identified as the SS Ozama by underwater archaeology pioneer and treasure hunter Dr. E. Lee Spence.
Directed by Otto Preminger – The film is based on the events that happened on the ship SS Exodus in 1947 as well as events dealing with the founding of the state of Israel in 1948. +
Starring Paul Newman, Eva Marie Saint, Ralph Richardson, Peter Lawford, Lee J. Cobb, Sal Mineo, John Derek, and Hugh Griffith – Written by Dalton Trumbo (screenplay), based on the novel by Leon Uris
Ari Ben Canaan (Paul Newman), a Hagannah rebel who previously was a captain in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army in the Second World War, obtains a cargo ship and smuggles 611 Jewish inmates out of the camp for an illegal voyage to Mandate Palestine before being discovered by military authorities.
When the British find out that the refugees are in a ship in the harbor of Famagusta, they blockade it. The refugees stage a hunger strike, during which the camp’s doctor dies, and Ari threatens to blow up the ship and the refugees. The British relent and allow the Exodus safe passage. +
Dov Landau (Sal Mineo) and Karen Hansen (Jill Haworth), a young Danish-Jewish girl
Otto Preminger: Die Wahrheit der Blicke
Ernest Gold won Best Soundtrack Album and Song of the Year at the Grammy Awards of 1961 for the soundtrack and theme to Exodus respectively. It is the only instrumental song ever to receive that award to date. +
above rt: Ernest Gold; Exodus Theme
Paul Newman and Eva Marie Saint as Nurse Katherine “Kitty” Fremont; an American volunteer at the Karaolos internment camp on Cyprus, where thousands of Jews – Holocaust survivors, are being held by the British, who won’t let them go to Palestine. +
Exodus 1947 was a ship that carried Jewish emigrants from France to British Mandatory Palestine on July 11, 1947.
Following the war, 250,000 Jewish refugees were stranded in displaced persons (DP) camps in Europe. Despite the pressure of world opinion, in particular the repeated requests of US President Harry Truman, the British refused to lift the ban on immigration and admit 100,000 Jews to Palestine.
Most of the emigrants were Holocaust survivors who had no legal immigration certificates for Palestine. Following wide media coverage, the British Royal Navy seized the ship and deported all its passengers back to Europe.
The ship was formerly the packet steamer SS President Warfield for the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, (American steamship line from 1840 to 1962) providing overnight steamboat service on the Chesapeake Bay, primarily between Baltimore, Maryland, and Norfolk, Virginia. +
From the ship’s launch in 1928 until 1942, it carried passengers and freight between Norfolk, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland in the United States.
The SS President Warfield, built at Sparrows Point, MD in 1911, was named after the Old Bay Line’s president, S. Davies Warfield.
Warfield’s niece was Bessie Wallis Warfield (June 19, 1896 – April 24, 1986), best known as Wallis Simpson (right) and later still the Duchess of Windsor, who was a mistress, and later wife, of the former Edward VIII of the United Kingdom and was indirectly responsible for his abdication of the throne, though it has been argued that his probable Nazi sympathies were a factor. +
President Warfield was expropriated in 1942 by the War Shipping Administration for national defense as a transport during World War II. Following the end of World War II, the President Warfield was decommissioned and returned to the War Shipping Administration for disposal as surplus.
The old President Warfield was eventually acquired in early 1947 by Mossad Le’aliyah Bet, a Jewish organization helping Holocaust survivors illegally reach Palestine, then under British mandate. The former Baltimore Steam Packet and U.S. Navy steamship was renamed Exodus when she embarked from France for Palestine on July 11, 1947, carrying 4,515 passengers. +
The Exodus arrives at Haifa in July 1947
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After the war, millions of Europeans were living under guard and behind barbed wire fences, without adequate medical care and other services in “displaced persons,” (refugee) camps within Germany and Austria.
European Jews began organizing an underground network known as the Brichah (“flight,” in Hebrew), which moved thousands of Jews from the camps to ports on the Mediterranean Sea, so they could then be sent to Palestine by ship. Most of the ships had names such as Lo Tafchidunu (“You can’t frighten us”) and La-Nitzahon (“To the Victory”) designed to inspire and rally the Jews.
Immigration to Israel, 18 July 1947
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This was part of what was known as Aliyah Bet or the “illegal immigration fleet,” which were a series of attempts by European Jews to immigrate illegally to Palestine before and after the war
Journeys typically started in the DP camps and moved through one of two collection points in the American occupation sector, Bad Reichenhall and Leipheim. From there, the refugees travelled in disguised trucks, on foot, or by train.
Over 100,000 people attempted to illegally enter Palestine by way of 142 voyages by 120 ships. +
Over half were stopped by the British patrols. Most of the intercepted immigrants were sent to internment camps in Cyprus. Over 1,600 drowned at sea. Only a few thousand actually succeeded in entering Palestine.
The Struma disaster was the sinking in February 1942 of a ship, MV Struma, that had been trying to take several hundred Jewish refugees from Axis-allied Romania to Mandatory Palestine. She was a small iron-hulled ship of only 240 GRT that had been built in 1867 as a steam-powered schooner, but had recently been re-engined with an unreliable second-hand diesel engine.
Struma was only 148.4 ft (45 m) long, but an estimated 781 refugees were crammed into her. +
“Everyone died, everyone, except for me,” says David Stoliar, 89, of the refugee ship Struma’s torpedoing in the Black Sea in 1942. On the 70th anniversary of World War II’s worst civilian maritime disaster, he recounts the harrowing experience.
The Patria disaster was the sinking on 25 November 1940 by the Haganah of a French-built ocean liner, the 11,885-ton SS Patria, in the port of Haifa, killing 267 people and injuring 172. At the time of the sinking, the Patria was carrying about 1,800 Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied Europe. Zionist organizations opposed the deportation, and the underground paramilitary Haganah group planted a bomb intended to disable the ship to prevent it from leaving Haifa.
The Haganah miscalculated the effects of the explosion and the bomb sank the ship in less than 16 minutes, trapping hundreds in the hold. +
The Exodus was intercepted, attacked, and boarded by the British patrol. Despite significant resistance from its passengers, Exodus was forcibly returned to Europe, and ts passengers sent back to Germany. This was publicized to the great embarrassment of the British government.
18 July 1947; SS Exodus wounded
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On 8th December 1946, HMS Providence, under the command of Lieutenant William E.Messinger, RN., was First Duty Minesweeper, at one hour’s notice for sea in Haifa Harbour.
At 2240hrs on 8th December, a signal was received from the Commander-in- Chief Mediterranean, ordering Providence to raise steam and proceed, without further orders and at best speed, to Syrna Island (36°20’N, 26°40’E) where more than seven hundred survivors from the wrecked ‘illegal ship’ Rafiach (Athina) had come ashore.
Some 250 American veterans, including Murray S. Greenfield (of the ship Hatikva), from World War II volunteered to sail ten ships (“The Jews’ Secret Fleet”) from the USA to Europe to load 35,000 survivors of the Holocaust (half of the illegal immigrants to Palestine) , only to be deported back to detention camps. +
VIDEO: Incident On Jewish Refugee Ship 1947
British Pathe Newsreels
Meier Schwarz (born 1926) is an Israeli former plant physiologist who helped to organize and implement the illegal immigration of Jews to Palestine after the Second World War (Aliyah Bet). At the age of 22 he was the Hagana commander of one of the three Exodus ships, the Ocean Vigour. +
SS Ocean Vigour was a British Ocean class freighter, which served on various convoys during World War II, and then as a troopship. She took part in the return of immigrants from the SS Exodus back to Europe, before being sold into commercial service. She was scrapped in 1967.
Under the designation HMT Ocean Vigour the ship was operating the eastern Mediterranean, employed in transporting illegal Jewish immigrants to detention camps in Cyprus. +
On 2 April 1947, a sabotage unit of the Palyam (abbreviation of Plugat HaYam (Hebrew; lit. “Sea Company”) detonated a bomb aboard while she was moored at Famagusta, Cyprus.
The division was in charge of underwater demolition and maritime activity units. The majority of their activities were related to the escorting of ships of Aliyah Bet, immigration ships (66 of them in all) bringing Jewish refugees from Europe by boat.
From August 1945 to May 1948, approximately seventy Palyamniks escorted close to 70,000 immigrants in 66 sea voyages, from Sweden in the north to Algeria in the south, France in the west to Romania in the east. They also escorted the arms ships that brought vital arms during the war.
On March 17, 1948, the Naval Service (the precursor of the Israeli Sea Corps) was formed, and the Palyam were ordered to join. Palyam members who specialized in maritime sabotage formed Shayetet 13, the IDF Naval Commando unit.
Voyage of the Damned is a 1974 book written by Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan-Witts, which was the basis of a 1976 drama film with the same title. The story was inspired by true events concerning the fate of the MS St. Louis ocean liner carrying Jewish refugees from Germany to Cuba in 1939.
Based on actual events, this film tells the story of the 1939 voyage of the St. Louis, which departed from Hamburg carrying 937 Jews from Germany, ostensibly for relocation in Havana, Cuba.
The passengers, having seen and suffered rising anti-Semitism in Germany realised that this might be their only chance to escape. The film details the emotional journey of the passengers who gradually become aware that their passage was planned as an exercise in propaganda and that it had never been intended that they disembark in Cuba. Rather, they were to be set up as Pariahs: an example before the world.
The all-star cast includes Faye Dunaway, Laura Gemser, Lee Grant, Oskar Werner, Sam Wanamaker, Lynne Frederick, Luther Adler, Wendy Hiller, Julie Harris, Nehemiah Persoff, Paul Koslo, Jonathan Pryce, Max von Sydow, Malcolm McDowell, Orson Welles, James Mason, Katharine Ross, JosÃ© Ferrer, Ben Gazzara, Fernando Rey, Maria Schell, Janet Suzman, Helmut Griem, Victor Spinetti and Denholm Elliott.
Nominated for three Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actress – Lee Grant, Best Original Score – Lalo Schifrin, and Best Writing, (Adapted Screenplay)
arrival of Jewish refugees from Austria in Shanghai
disembarking from the Italian ship “Conte Verde”
During the War of Independence, the Israel Navy undertook a number of actions and campaigns which led to Israel’s command of the sea, despite the clear superiority of the Egyptian naval force.
The most impressive Israeli naval operation during the war was the sinking of the Emir Farouk, the flagship of the Egyptian fleet — and the damaging of an Egyptian minesweeper which had been escorting troops and equipment to be landed in the combat areas.
more: Sinking the Emir Farouk
The first thing you notice about the sub is that it’s not as big as you might expect.
It’s sleek, uncluttered, and very very GREEN. –source
from Deep Sea News
June 8th, 2013 – To kick off WOD celebrations, we were super fortunate at Georgia Aquarium to get a short-notice visit from James Cameron’s Deepsea Challenger submersible this week, on it’s way to its new home at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution…
Here’s What Antarctica Looks Like Under All The Ice
In research released earlier this year, an international team of scientists have given us our best look yet at what that land may have looked like.